Sociology And The Scientists Who Laid Its Foundations – (P.1)

Although sociology is a young science, it has made great contributions to human development. Today, when people have made great strides in development, sociology and those who laid the foundations of this scientific field have been recognized fairly and properly. Let’s learn more about this field through the content of this blog.

What is sociology?

“Sociology is a fledgling science”. This assertion is indeed correct. The proof is that sociology was born in 19th century Europe. The birth of sociology is a necessity when all the needs, premises, and development of changing cognitive conditions have been fully developed. Before the 19th century, Sociology was not considered a separate science. This happens when it is dissolved into other sciences such as ethnology, anthropology, philosophy, psychology, socio-psychology, etc.

Sociology
Sociology

Sociology is a scientific discipline that studies the general laws and regularities of society, and the peculiarities of the development and operation of the historically determined social system. In addition, this science also studies the mechanisms of action and forms of manifestation of the above-mentioned laws in the activities of individuals, social groups, classes, and nations.

Scientists who laid the foundations for sociology

1. Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

Auguste Comte was a French social theorist, positivist philosopher, and founder of sociology. Born into a religious family of monarchy, he soon became a liberal and revolutionary. At the age of 16, he entered the Polytechnic University and three years later, at the age of 19, he was appointed secretary to Saint Simon. After separating from Saint Simon in 1824, he began teaching positivist philosophy.

Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte

He was the founder of the positivist association and witnessed the wars and great political upheavals in France in the nineteenth century. His basic works such as: “Positive philosophy”, “Positive political system”. Comte’s thought was influenced by natural sciences such as physics and biology. According to his arguments, sociology is the science of society and its constituent parts and processes. He also called it social physics. He proposed three principles for the construction of sociology: empiricism, positivism, and physical theory.

2. Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)

Karl Marx is a great philosopher, theorist, and founder of scientific communism. He did not leave behind a complete theory of sociology, but his entire legacy greatly influenced sociology. The theory of socio-economic form is a typical example.

According to Karl Marx, the division of society into classes is social relations, in which class conflicts and class struggles are hidden. His life and career are associated with the process of combining scientific research and practical situations. According to Engels, with two theoretical theories of surplus value and historical materialism, K. Marx moved from idealism to materialism.

Karl Marx
Karl Marx

Karl Marx believed that the cause of social inequality and stratification is private ownership of the means of production. Therefore, it is necessary to abolish private ownership and replace it with the ownership of the whole society to build a just and civilized society.